Robots are mechanical or virtual artificial agents, usually electro-mechanical machines which are controlled by a computer program or electronic circuitry. There are separated into different categories depending on their functionality. Most popular robots are placed in hazardous places because these robots perform the tasks that humans are not able to access.
Some robots(autonomous robots) can operate by themselves and other robots always need guidance from humans to perform the tasks. They are used in various fields like medical, space communication, military applications, and so on. An automatic robot is a type of manipulated robotic system considered to be as one of the earliest robotic systems by the control system it possesses.
They are divided into three main categories based on their characteristics and applications: Autonomous robots, Remote controlled robots and Manually controlled robots. Out of three types of robotic manipulation system, the autonomous system is further classified into four types, which can be implemented over a wide range of applications: Programmable, Non-programmable, Adaptive, and Intelligent.
Programmable robots are a first generation robot with an actuator facility on each joint. They can be reprogrammable based on the kind of task they are commissioned to. Robot kits like Lego mind storms, Bioloid from programmable Robotics can help the students to learn about its programming and working.
The advanced mobile robot, robotic arms, and Gadgeteer are some of the most known examples of these robots type. However, the main drawback of this autonomous robot is that once is it programmed it cannot change its functionality even if there is an emergency. These robots can be used in different applications like mobile robotics, industrial controlling and spacecraft applications.
These robots are one of the primary types of robot, in fact, a non-programmable robot. It is not even considered as a robot but as an exploiter lacking reprogrammable controlling device. An example of these types of robots are the mechanical arms used in industries which are attached to a programmable device.
These types of robots find applications in some of the devices including path guiders and medical products’ carriers and also some line follower robots.
Adaptive robots are also industrial robots that can be adapted independently to various ranges in the process. However, these robots are more complex than programmable robots. They be adapted up to a certain extent, and after evaluation, they can perform the action required in that adapted area. They are mostly equipped with a sophisticated sensory and control system. Sensors are used to sense environmental conditions, process variables and other parameters related to a particular task. Control system usually has access to these sensor signals, and depending on the implemented algorithm, they control the outputs.
These robots can be used in different applications like aerospace, medical, consumer goods, house-hold applications and manufacturing industrial areas.
Intelligent robots, as the name suggests, are the most intelligent of all the other types of robots with sensors and microprocessors for storing and processing the data. These robots (considered as autonomous robots) performance is highly efficient due to their situation-based analyzing and task performing abilities. Intelligent robots can sense the senses like pain, smell and taste and are also capable of vision and hearing, and – in accordance, perform the actions and expressions like emotions, thinking and learning.
These robots find their applications in the fields like medical, military applications and home appliance control systems, etc.